is melamine thermosetting plastic
This white solid is a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. Melamine formaldehyde is a thermosetting plastic (or thermoset) that strengthens as it is heated during its preparation. Li Xiuping, a manager at Henan Xinxiang Huaxing Chemical in Henan Province, stated, "Our chemical products are mostly used for additives, not for animal feed. was a hypothetical design for a synthetic biology circuit, to be used for detecting melamine and related chemical analogues such as cyanuric acid. Melamine is one of the major components in Pigment Yellow 150, a colorant in inks and plastics. , In a 2009 study of 683 children diagnosed in Beijing in 2008 with nephrolithiasis and 6,498 children without nephrolithiasis aged < 3 years, investigators found that in children exposed to melamine levels < 0.2 mg/kg per day, the risk for nephrolithiasis was 1.7 times higher than in those without melamine exposure, suggesting that the risk of melamine-induced nephrolithiasis in young children starts at a lower intake level than the levels recommended by the World Health Organization. , The existing methods for melamine determination using a triple quadrupole liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC/MS) after solid phase extraction (SPE) are often complex and time-consuming. Melamine is a chemical used in making plastics, adhesives and industrial coatings. The off-gas contains large amounts of ammonia. , Melamine derivatives of arsenical drugs are potentially important in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Melamine foam is used as insulation, soundproofing material and in polymeric cleaning products, such as Magic Eraser.  In 1978, however, a study concluded that melamine "may not be an acceptable non-protein N source for ruminants" because its hydrolysis in cattle is slower and less complete than other nitrogen sources such as cottonseed meal and urea. This thermosetting plastic material is made from melamine and formaldehyde. In one method, molten urea is introduced onto a fluidized bed with catalyst for reaction. However, reduced profit has already caused other joint melamine ventures to be postponed there. Melamine is part of the core structure for a number of drugs including almitrine, altretamine, cyromazine, ethylhexyl triazone, iscotrizinol, meladrazine, melarsomine, melarsoprol, tretamine, trinitrotriazine, and others.. Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine) is a resin with melamine rings terminated with multiple hydroxyl groups derived from formaldehyde. - Answers Following the deaths of children in China from powdered milk in 2008, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European in Belgium set up a website about methods to detect melamine. Until the 2007 pet food recalls, melamine had not routinely been monitored in food, except in the context of plastic safety or insecticide residue. In April 2007, The New York Times reported that the addition of "melamine scrap" into fish and livestock feed to give the false appearance of a higher level of protein was an "open secret" in many parts of mainland China, reporting that this melamine scrap was being produced by at least one plant processing coal into melamine. Cyanuric acid was detected in the kidneys of rats administered melamine alone, and the concentration after Klebsiella colonization was increased. , The short-term lethal dose of melamine is on a par with common table salt, with an LD50 of more than 3 grams per kilogram of bodyweight. ", Melamine is a metabolite of cyromazine, a pesticide.  Small amounts of melamine have also been reported in foodstuff as a metabolite product of cyromazine, an insecticide used on animals and crops. The spray is then ionised by extractive electrospray ionisation (EESI) and analysed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). , Toxicity of melamine can be mediated by intestinal microbiota. The mineralization (degradation to ammonia) for melamine is slow, making this product both economically and scientifically impractical for use as a fertilizer. Currently, China is the world's largest exporter of melamine, while its domestic consumption still grows by 10% per year. Such a material is also known as a thermoset or thermosetting polymer. Melamine can be combined with formaldehyde and other agents to produce melamine resins. Urine alkalinization and stone liberalization have been reported to be the most effective treatments in humans. Bakelite is a- synthetic polymer— plastic. Thermoset and Thermoplastics are two separate forms of polymer powders, which are differentiated based on their behavior when reacting to the application of heat. It is a highly durable thermosetting plastic which starts as an organic compound which is combined with formaldehyde. Melamine formaldehyde is a thermosetting plastic. Breidbach, A., Bouten, K., Kroger, K., Ulberth, F. U.S. FDA Laboratory Information Bulletin No 4421 –, Zwitterionic HILIC separation of melamine and cyanuric acid –, false appearance of a higher level of protein, "Targeting of Toxic Compounds to the Trypanosome's Interior", "Poison pet food woes seem to hit cats harder", "Safe Melamine Levels Named by World Health Organization", "Study Examines Why Most Survived China's Melamine Scare", "Flame Retardants Center: Melamine Compounds", "Assessment of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid Toxicity in Cats", "Identification and Characterization of Toxicity of Contaminants in Pet Food Leading to an Outbreak of Renal Toxicity in Cats and Dogs", "Melamine-induced infant urinary calculi: A report on 24 cases and a 1-year follow-up", "Culprit in pet food deaths may be combination of contaminants", "Proceedings of the American Association of Veterinarian Laboratory Diagnosticians 50th Annual Conference", "Researchers examine contaminants in food, deaths of pets", "International experts limit melamine levels in food", "Syntheses and Reactions of s-Triazine Derivatives", Press release by Natural Balance Pet Foods, Melamine Pet Food Recall – Frequently Asked Questions, "Filler in Animal Feed Is Open Secret in China", "Poison used in China is found in U.S.-made animal feed", "Nearly 53,000 Chinese children sick from milk", China baby milk scandal spreads as sick toll rises to 13,000, "Toxicological and Health Aspects of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid", "6,200 Chinese babies ill, 3 die from tainted milk", "Melamine tainted milk re-emerges in northwest China plant", "Tainted Dairy Products Seized in Western China", "The risk of melamine-induced nephrolithiasis in young children starts at a lower intake level than recommended by the WHO", "Urinary tract abnormalities in Chinese rural children who consumed melamine-contaminated dairy products: A population-based screening and follow-up study", Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, "Strategies for Determination of Melamine by HILIC", "Dairy detection: monitoring melamine in milk", "Amateurs are trying genetic engineering at home", "HPLC Determination of Melamine, Ammeline, Ammelide, and Cyanuric Acid Contamination in Wheat Gluten and Rice Protein Concentrate", "A new approach to measure melamine, cyanuric acid, and melamine cyanurate using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy coupled with gold nanosubstrates", European Commission decision (2008/798/EC) imposing special conditions governing the import of products containing milk or milk products originating from China, Melamine Materials Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), OECD Screening Information Data Set (SIDS): Melamine, FDA Web Page with Information on Pet Food Recall (due to Melamine contamination), Statement on melamine from the International Fertilizer Industry Association, Toxicological and Health Aspects of Melamine and Cyanuric Acid: Report of a WHO Expert Meeting In collaboration with FAO, 2008 United States salmonellosis outbreak, 2017–18 South African listeriosis outbreak, 2018 Australian rockmelon listeriosis outbreak, Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Melamine&oldid=992216890, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2014, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2020, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 03:06. Is melamine thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic? Like cyanamide, it contains 67% nitrogen by mass, and its derivatives have fire retardant properties due to its release of nitrogen gas when burned or charred. "Chronic Feeding – Dogs", cited by "Summary of toxicity data – trichloromelamine" by California Environmental Protection Agency, last revised on February 4, 2002. , The United Nations' food standards body, Codex Alimentarius Commission, has set the maximum amount of melamine allowed in powdered infant formula to 1 mg/kg and the amount of the chemical allowed in other foods and animal feed to 2.5 mg/kg. When did organ music become associated with baseball? , Another recall incident in 2007 involved melamine which had been purposely added as a binder to fish and livestock feed manufactured in the United States. 3.– rubber — is used in conveyor belts. The primary difference between the two is that Thermoset is a material that strengthens when heated, but cannot be remolded or heated after the initial forming, while thermoplastics can be reheated, remolded, and cooled as necessary without causing any chemical chan… It is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes. , Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, which can lead to bladder cancer. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS 3 Melamine Formaldehyde. Initially, the polymer is a liquid or …  However, melamine is much more expensive to produce than are other common nitrogen fertilizers, such as urea. This ordering was further investigated using classical Monte Carlo and DFT methods. The product retains its rigid form regardless of subsequent applications of heat. An analysis requires 30 seconds per sample. The German word Melamin was coined by combining the words Melam (a derivative of ammonium thiocyanate) and amine. A thermosetting plastic is a polymer that irreversibly becomes rigid when heated. , Huang et al. Thermoset ingredients are used broadly in a wide range … If a thermoplastic is like butter, then thermoset plastics are like egg whites. Melamine foam is used as insulation, soundproofing material and in polymeric cleaning products, such as Magic Eraser. Melamine is a type of plastic found in many reusable plates, utensils, and cups. , Ultrasound-assisted extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been developed at ETH Zurich (Switzerland) by Zhu, Chingin et al., (2008) for a rapid detection of melamine in untreated food samples. Rats colonized by K. terrigena showed greater melamine-induced kidney damage compared to those not colonized.. Melamine also enters the fabrication of melamine polysulfonate used as superplasticizer for making high-resistance concrete. Melamine /ˈmɛləmiːn/ (listen) is an organic compound with the formula C3H6N6.  Similar recommendations have been issued by other authorities, like the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, both based on liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC/MS) detection after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation. THERMOSETTING PLASTICS. However, electrospray ionization methods coupled with mass spectrometry allow a rapid and direct analysis of samples with complex matrices: the native liquid samples are directly ionized under ambient conditions in their original solution. The use of melamine as fertilizer for crops had been envisioned during the 1950s and 1960s because of its high nitrogen content (2/3).  U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists explained that when melamine and cyanuric acid are absorbed into the bloodstream, they concentrate and interact in the urine-filled renal tubules, then crystallize and form large numbers of round, yellow crystals, which in turn block and damage the renal cells that line the tubes, causing the kidneys to malfunction. Types of Plastics. They are used when resistance … The presence of melamine in urine specimens from children who consumed adulterated milk products has been determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.. , In September 2008, several companies, including Nestlé, were implicated in a scandal involving milk and infant formula which had been adulterated with melamine, leading to kidney stones and other kidney failure, especially among young children. It is reported that melamine molecules adsorbed on gold or silver surface tend to arrange into honeycomb or closed-packed structures. Melamine has been involved in several food recalls after the discovery of severe kidney damage to children and pets poisoned by melamine-adulterated food. Explain why the following are made of thermosetting plastics… Thermoset plastics offer an enhanced high-performance combination of thermal stability, chemical resistance, and structural integrity. Melamine was first synthesized by the German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1834. The study concluded that the majority of labs can effectively detect melamine in food. The effluent then is cooled. There are many types, varying from very slow to very fast curing. Melamine formaldehyde (also called melamine or MF) is a hard, very durable, and versatile thermosetting aminoplast1with good fire and heat resistance. Thermosetting plastics are plastics do not soften on heating. And when the plastic mixes with the paper base, it becomes a laminate which is used to cover on other … For the chemically-related plastic, see, InChI=1S/C3H6N6/c4-1-7-2(5)9-3(6)8-1/h(H6,4,5,6,7,8,9), InChI=1/C3H6N6/c4-1-7-2(5)9-3(6)8-1/h(H6,4,5,6,7,8,9), Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (.  Melamine is, therefore, unrelated etymologically to the root melas (μελας, meaning "black" in Greek), from which the words melanin, a pigment, and melatonin, a hormone, are formed. Example of this kind of thermosetting is Melamine.b) Thermosetting plastics such as bakelite are poor conductor of heat and electricity. They go away slowly, if at all, so there is the potential for chronic toxicity.  It has been reported that cyromazine can also be converted to melamine in plants. The reported dermal LD50 is >1000 mg/kg for rabbits. Colby, Robert W. and Mesler, Robert J. Jr. (1958) "Ruminant feed compositions". Between 2002 and 2007, while the global melamine price remained stable, a steep increase in the price of urea (feedstock for melamine) has reduced the profitability of melamine manufacturing. Ultrasounds are used to nebulize the melamine-containing liquids into a fine spray. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time?  A melamine fibre, Basofil, has low thermal conductivity, excellent flame resistance and is self-extinguishing; this makes it useful for flame-resistant protective clothing, either alone or as a blend with other fibres. In culture, Klebsiella terrigena, which rarely colonizes mammalian intestines, was shown to convert melamine to cyanuric acid directly. During manufacturing, thermosetting plastics become hard and brittle with the application of heat and pressure. This white solid is a trimer of cyanamide, with a 1,3,5-triazine skeleton. , In October 2008, "Select Fresh Brown Eggs" exported to Hong Kong from the Hanwei Group in Dalian in northeastern China were found to be contaminated with nearly twice the legal limit of melamine. In 2007, a pet food recall was initiated by Menu Foods and other pet food manufacturers who had found their products had been contaminated and caused serious illnesses or deaths in some of the animals that had eaten them. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? In December 2008, two new fast and inexpensive methods for detecting melamine in liquids have been published. Melamine, phenolic, urea, plastic … If this is combined with formaldehyde, then it becomes a plastic which is the durable thermosetting. Because of its smooth surface and hygienic qualities, used for kitchen laminates surfaces. Melamines are the hardest of the laminates with good dimensional stability and arc … Sulfonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) is a polymer used as cement admixture to reduce the water content in concrete while increasing the fluidity and the workability of the mix during its handling and pouring. Once set, it cannot be remolded or set to form a different shape. Students can solve NCERT Class 8 Science Synthetic Fibres and Plastics … , The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides a test method for analyzing cyromazine and melamine in animal tissues.  , As of July 2010, Chinese authorities were still reporting some seizures of melamine-contaminated dairy product in some provinces, though it was unclear whether these new contaminations constituted wholly new adulterations or were the result of illegal reuse of material from the 2008 adulterations. Such a self-assembly occurs due to the inter-molecular hydrogen bond interaction. , Fast diagnosis and treatment of acute obstructive urolithiasis may prevent the development of acute kidney failure. Science MCQs for Class 8 Chapter Wise with Answers PDF Download was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. Today most industrial manufacturers use urea in the following reaction to produce melamine: In the first step, urea decomposes into cyanic acid and ammonia: Cyanic acid polymerizes to cyanuric acid, which condenses with the liberated ammonia forming melamine. This material is easy to color, and the color is bright and beautiful. Technically, melamine is a white crystalline chemical which is not the same thing as plastic. It results in concrete with a lower porosity and a higher mechanical strength, exhibiting an improved resistance to aggressive environments and a longer lifetime. and animal feed that could wide variety health risk kidney stones and dying in animals.  A 2010 study from Lanzhou University attributed kidney failure in humans to uric acid stone accumulation after ingestion of melamine resulting in a rapid aggregation of metabolites such as cyanuric acid diamide (ammeline) and cyanuric acid. Is melamine thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic? In early production, first calcium cyanamide was converted into dicyandiamide, which was heated above its melting temperature to produce melamine. We encourage you to explore … Surplus melamine has been an adulterant for feedstock and milk in mainland China for several years now because it can make diluted or poor quality material appear to be higher in protein content by elevating the total nitrogen content detected by some simple protein tests. The use of plastics can be reduced … On January 22, 2009, three of those involved in the scandal (including one conditional sentence) were sentenced to death in a Chinese court. Melamine is not thermoplastics, it is thermosetting plastic. The United Nations' food standards body, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, has set the maximum amount of melamine allowed in powdered infant formula to 1 mg/kg and the amount of the chemical allowed in other foods and animal feed to 2.5 mg/kg.  In 2007, the FDA began using a high performance liquid chromatography test to determine the melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid contamination in food. , Urinary calculi specimens were collected from 15 cases treated in Beijing and were analyzed as unknown objects for their components at Beijing Institute of Microchemistry using infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and high performance liquid chromatography. Thermosetting polymer composites are made using a laminating process, which binds together resins such as epoxy, silicone, melamine, etc. Between the late 1990s and early 2000s, both consumption and production of melamine grew considerably in mainland China. Wire made from which fibre is strongest: (a) nylon (b) cotton (c) wool ... Melamine (iii) Thermosetting plastic … Also used for electrical plugs and sockets, because it …  A 2013 study demonstrated that melamine can be metabolized to cyanuric acid by gut bacteria. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Melamine formaldehyde plastics … "The potential for long-term complications after exposure to melamine remains a serious concern," the report said. Such resins are characteristically durable thermosetting plastic used in high pressure decorative laminates such as Formica, melamine dinnerware, laminate flooring, and dry erase boards. However its most common use is to combine it with formaldehyde, to create a melamine resin which is a type of … Free PDF Download of CBSE Science Multiple Choice Questions for Class 8 with Answers Chapter 3 Synthetic Fibres and Plastics. The solid may contain approximately 70% melamine, 23% oxytriazines (ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid), 0.7% polycondensates (melem, melam, and melon). Melamine /ˈmɛləmiːn/ (listen) is an organic compound with the formula C3H6N6. The raw material of melamine tableware is melamine formaldehyde resin, which is a kind of plastic and belongs to the thermosetting plastic in plastics. Answer: (b) thermosetting polymer Melamine is sometimes illegally added to food products in order to increase the apparent protein content. Melamine is (a) thermoplastic polymer (b) thermosetting polymer (c) fibre (d) elastomer. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? The result of the analysis showed that the calculus was composed of melamine and uric acid, and the molecular ratio of uric acid to melamine was around 2:1. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Melamine is reported to have an oral median lethal dose (LD50) of 3248 mg/kg based on rat data. In particular, Klebsiella terrigena was determined to be a factor in melamine toxicity. Standard tests, such as the Kjeldahl and Dumas tests, estimate protein levels by measuring the nitrogen content, so they can be misled by adding nitrogen-rich compounds such as melamine. Its good fire retardant properties are due to the release … Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? A study by Soviet researchers in the 1980s suggested that melamine cyanurate, commonly used as a fire retardant, could be more toxic than either melamine or cyanuric acid alone. By December 2008, nearly 300,000 people had become ill, with more than 50,000 infant hospitalizations and six infant deaths. Thermoset Plastics; Glass-Melamine Laminate (G5, G9) < Back. The FDA has ruled that melamine is safe to use, but that you shouldn’t use it in a microwave. Hot ammonia gas is also present to fluidize the bed and inhibit deammonization. Ammonia and carbon dioxide in the off-gas are separated from the melamine-containing slurry. What does contingent mean in real estate? Such resins are characteristically durable thermosetting plastic used in high-pressure decorative laminates such as Formica, melamine dinnerware, laminate flooring, and dry erase boards.. As a result of the Chinese milk scandal, court trials began in December 2008 for six people involved in adding melamine in food products, ending in January 2009 with two of the convicts being sentenced to death and executed.. Question 4. "Our results suggest a need for further follow-up of affected children to evaluate the possible long-term impact on health, including renal function.  Melamine may have been added to fool government protein content tests after water was added to fraudulently dilute the milk. , A survey commissioned by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians suggested that crystals formed in the kidneys when melamine combined with cyanuric acid, "don't dissolve easily.  A 2008 study produced similar experimental results in rats and characterized the melamine and cyanuric acid in contaminated pet food from the 2007 outbreak.  In March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration reported finding white granular melamine in the pet food, in samples of white granular wheat gluten imported from a single source in China, Xuzhou Anying Biologic Technology as well as in crystalline form in the kidneys and in urine of affected animals. Laminate vs. Melamine. Melamine and its salts are used as fire-retardant additives in paints, plastics, and paper.  Another procedure is based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).. (2008) have also developed at Purdue University (US) a simpler instrumentation and a faster method by using a low-temperature plasma probe to ionize the samples.  In the Eurotecnica process, however, there is no solid waste and the contaminants are decomposed to ammonia and carbon dioxide and sent as off gas to the upstream urea plant; accordingly, the waste water can be recycled to the melamine plant itself or used as clean cooling water make-up.. Answer. " Another 2010 follow-up study from Lanzhou University attributed the uric acid stone accumulation after ingestion of melamine to a rapid aggradation of metabolites such as cyanuric acid diamide (ammeline) and cyanuric acid and reported that urine alkalinization and stone liberalization were the most effective treatments.. Therefore, melamine production is often integrated into urea production, which uses ammonia as feedstock. Another example is Melamine which has a capacity to resist fire and heat much efficiently than other plastics. How long will the footprints on the moon last? The conceptual project is hosted at OpenWetWare as open source biology in collaboration with DIYbio and has been discussed in various newspapers in the context of homebrew biotechnology. The released water reacts with cyanic acid, which helps to drive the reaction: The above reaction can be carried out by either of two methods: catalyzed gas-phase production or high pressure liquid-phase production. In one large-scale application, melamine is combined with formaldehyde and other agents to produce melamine resins. (or thermoset) that … , On characterization and treatment of urinary stones in affected infants, The New England Journal of Medicine printed an editorial in March 2009, along with reports on cases from Beijing, Hong Kong and Taipei. Acrylic, polyethylene and polystyrene are thermoplastic. In culture, K. terrigena was shown to convert melamine to cyanuric acid directly. In its butylated form, it is dissolved in n-butanol and xylene.  In a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, it was reported that melamine exposure increased the incidence of urinary tract stones by seven times in children.  Ingestion of melamine may lead to reproductive damage, or bladder or kidney stones, and bladder cancer. By early 2006, melamine production in mainland China is reported to be in "serious surplus". It is used in kitchenware and fabrics as well as floor tiles. with reinforcement base materials such as glass, linen and …  Officials estimate that about 20% of the dairy companies tested in China sell products tainted with melamine. All Rights Reserved. Is melamine thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic. There are many types, varying from very slow to very fast curing. It is then used to cross-link with alkyd, epoxy, acrylic, and polyester resins, used in surface coatings. , In October 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new methods for the analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid in infant formulations in the Laboratory Information Bulletin No 4421. Laminate, yet not all laminates are made from melamine. is melamine thermosetting plastic 37 ] in animals 2009... Exposure to melamine in liquids have been published most effective treatments in.... Gas is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the of. Gas is also an irritant when inhaled or in contact with the skin or eyes to damage! Major manufacturers and licensors such as urea in pet meals to evaluate possible! To the release dates for the Wonder pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug polyester... Those not colonized. [ 84 ] [ 85 ] kidneys of rats administered melamine,... Further investigated using classical Monte Carlo [ 90 ] and DFT [ 91 ] methods by... 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Fluidized bed with catalyst for reaction insulation, soundproofing material and in polymeric cleaning products, such as Magic...., and the color is bright and beautiful study demonstrated that melamine is much more expensive to produce resins! Different shape content tests after water was added to food products in to... For detecting melamine in liquids have been added to fool Government protein content then ionised by electrospray! Culture, Klebsiella terrigena was shown to convert melamine to cyanuric acid directly colonization was.! Such resins are characteristically durable thermosetting plastic which starts as an organic compound with the skin or.!